J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. Table lists the 5 studies and the odds ratios for symptoms with increased prevalence that reached statistical significance in these studies. The cautions raised by Baker et al. Particle counter and BC monitor. On two occasions approximately 1 month apart, one hand wipe sample and an evening and morning urine sample were collected from each participant. Although gray literature studies are often based on a study group that is quite small, use inadequate measures of exposure, and are not published, many of the reports from about 20 states that were examined by the committee were judged to be publishable with some additional work. Total internal dose for individuals or population usually indicative of long-term averages for fat-soluble organics.
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The strength of personal sampling is the quantification of real exposure values for the individuals followed. It can force the analyst into ad hoc approaches to exposure assessment. Short-term exposures to high concentrations have been associated with higher prevalence rates of bronchitis, asthma and respiratory symptoms [ 5 — 8 ]. The estimation of exposure in relation to health effects is frequently difficult, and it has generally received inadequate attention. Workplace studies often focus on exposure to a single chemical agent, e.
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An important component of personal exposure assessment is a better understanding of spatial and temporal variability in pollutant concentrations. Misclassification is likely to be a crucial problem in studies of this nature, and improved characterization of exposure is a priority. These authors discuss the importance of misclassification of exposure in diluting the findings of the effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure. Studying and predicting mobility patterns of individuals using cell phones with built-in GPS receivers is an emerging field [ 62 , 63 ]. Consumer Products Concentration levels of various products. Temporal variability of pesticide concentrations in homes and implications for attenuation bias in epidemiologic studies.
The peak exposure is usually relevant for short-term exposure and acute toxic effects [ 29 ]. Forced vital capacity VC: Misclassification is likely to be a crucial problem in studies of this nature, and improved characterization of exposure is a priority. Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: Ryan has reviewed aspects of human exposure modeling that are useful for understanding the concept of exposure assessment.